American Betty Robinson was the winner of the first Olympic 100 metres for women at Amsterdam in 1928. Three years later, Robinson was involved in a plane crash, and was severely injured. A man who discovered her in a coma in the wreckage wrongly thought she was dead, put her in his trunk and drove her to an undertaker, where his mistake was discovered. She awoke from the coma seven months later, although it was another six months before she could get out of a wheelchair, and two years before she could walk normally again. Meanwhile, she missed the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles. Still unable to kneel for a normal 100m start, Robinson was a part of the US 4x100m relay team at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. The US team was running behind the heavily favored Germans, but they dropped the baton, allowing Robinson to win her second Olympic title.
Three days before the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, controversy over amateur status arose when International Olympic Committee President Avery Brundage threatened to disqualify 40 Alpine skiers who received endorsement and other deals. Austrian skier Karl Schranz, who received over $50,000 per year from ski manufacturers, was banned as an example. Meanwhile, Canada refused to send an ice hockey team, maintaining that professional players from Communist nations were allowed to compete with no restrictions. It was the first time Canada had not been represented in the tournament since 1920 when ice hockey had made its debut as part of the Summer Olympics at Antwerp. They did not compete internationally again until 1977, when the International Ice Hockey Federation adopted eligibility rules that allowed for professional players to compete. Instead of playing at the Olympics, Canadian officials helped organise a series of games against the Soviet Union in 1972 known as the Summit Series.
The 1900 Olympics in Paris included a few events that have long been discontinued. Among them were both a long jump and a high jump for horses. The only equestrian long jump event at the Games was won by a Belgian rider named Constant van Langhendonck with a leap of approximately 6.10 metres - 1.08m shorter than America's Alvin Kraenzlein managed to win the human version. At the same Games, Kraenzlein also won gold medals in the 60 metres, 110m hurdles and 200m hurdles. In 1913 he signed a five-year $50,000 contract with the German Government to train the 1916 German Olympic track and field team only for it to be cancelled because of World War One.
The first Olympic Games to be telecast in North America was Rome 1960 after United States broadcaster CBS paid $394,000 - $3.2 million in today's dollars - for the rights. In addition to CBS in the US, the Olympics were shown for the first time in Canada on CBC Television and in Mexico through the networks of Telesistema Mexicano. Since television broadcast satellites were still two years into the future, CBS, CBC, and Televissa shot and edited videotapes in the Italian capital, fed the tapes to Paris where they were re-recorded onto other tapes which were then loaded onto jet planes to North America. Planes carrying the tapes landed at Idlewild Airport in New York City, where mobile units fed the tapes to CBS, to Toronto for the CBC, and to Mexico City for Televisa. Despite this arrangement, many daytime events were broadcast in North America, especially on CBS and CBC, the same day they took place.
The International Olympic Committee did not have any female members until 1981 when it elected Venezuela's Flor Isava-Fonseca and Finland's Pirjo Häggman. Now there are 24 women who are IOC members, representing 22.6 per cent of the total membership of 106. There are also four honorary members. Isava-Fonseca, a sportswoman, journalist and writer, was the first woman elected to the IOC Executive Board in 1990. America Anita DeFrantz, a former rower who won an Olympic bronze medal at Montreal 1976, became the first female vice-president of the IOC between 1997 and 2001. She stood unsuccessfully to replace Juan Antonio Samaranch when he stood down as IOC President in 2001.
Montreal bid for the Winter Olympics, first in 1944 - cancelled due to World War Two - and then again in 1956. The city also lost out in its bid for the Summer Olympics in 1956 and 1972, finally winning the 1976 Summer Olympics in 1970. Several venues used for those Games were already in existence before Montreal made its first Olympic bid in the late 1930s. The oldest of these was the Varisty Stadium, originally built in 1898 and which hosted football during Montreal 1976. The Molson Stadium, which staged hockey, meanwhile, had been constructed in 1903.
America's men's basketball team scored an Olympic record 156 points when they beat Nigeria at London 2012. The record fell when Andre Igoudala hit a three-point shot to make it 139-68, surpassing the previous record of 138 scored by Brazil against Egypt at Seoul 1988. The United States scored 78 points in the first half alone, beating the previous Olympic record of 72, set by that same Brazil team against China in Seoul. The US had 49 points by the end of the first quarter and reached triple figures midway through the third. In total, they made 59-of-83 shots from the field, including 29-of-46 from three-point range.
Lasting a total of 187 days, or six months and four days, London 1908 was the longest in modern Olympics history. They were opened on April 27 by King Edward VII and finally closed on October 31. They were held alongside the Franco-British Exhibition, an event that attracted eight million visitors and celebrated the Entente Cordiale signed in 1904 by the United Kingdom and France and which initially attracted more interest among the public and media.
Jeu de paume was contested at the 1908 Olympics in London, the only occasion it has been a medal sport. An outdoor version called longue paume was a demonstration sport at Paris in 1900..Real tennis, as jeu de paume is called in the United Kingdom, was also an exhibition event at Paris 1924. In the Official Report of the 1908 Olympic Games, the sport is referred to as "Tennis (jeu de paume)" while tennis is named "lawn tennis." The competition was held at the Queen's Club in West Kensington and won by American Jay Gould II, grandson of the railroad magnate Jay Gould.
India, still a British colony, was forced to march behind the Union Jack at the Opening Ceremony at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin, but the hockey players saluted the flag of the Indian National Congress before their 8-1 gold-medal victory over Germany in which a barefoot Dhyan Chand scored a hat-trick. Nicknamed "the Wizard," Chand is perhaps the greatest hockey player in the history of the sport, and all kinds of legends have sprouted from that match, including that Chand scored six goals - a myth he dispelled in his 1952 autobiography, Goal! Another myth is the score could have been even more lopsided: Once the outcome seemed decided, India would move the ball into scoring position but would not attempt a shot on goal. A second story tells of Adolf Hitler offering Chand a chance to become a German citizen and military officer. A third, however, has Hitler leaving the match at halftime.
The first official poster produced for the Olympic Games was at Stockholm in 1912. After a thorough examination of several sketches sent in, and after having conferred with prominent Swedish artists in the matter, the Swedish Olympic Committee, chose a design by Olle Hjortzberg, of the Royal Academy, which had been sent in to the Committee in 1910, but had afterwards been slightly altered, representing the march of the nations - each athlete with a waving flag - to the common goal of the Olympic Games. The poster proved so popular that it needed to be reprinted several times to satisfy demand.
Lacrosse has been held in two Olympic Games, St Louis 1904 and London 1908. Both times it was open only to men and both times a Canadian team won the gold medal. At St Louis 1904, three teams from United States and Canada competed with Canadian team Shamrock triumphing. The second appearance, at London four years later, saw only two teams, from Canada and Great Britain, compete. Lacrosse was also held as a demonstration event at Amsterdam 1928, Los Angeles 1932 and London 1948.
The 1956 Olympics in Melbourne were affected by a number of boycotts. Egypt, Iraq and Lebanon announced they would not participate in the Games in response to the Suez Crisis when Egypt was invaded by Israel, Britain and France after Egypt nationalised the Suez canal. Meanwhile, the Soviet Union crushed the Hungarian Revolution, leading to the withdrawal of the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland. Less than two weeks before the Opening Ceremony November, the People's Republic of China chose to boycott the event because Taiwan, officially the Republic of China had been allowed to compete.China did not compete in the Olympics again until Los Angeles 1984.
During the pole vault at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, the crowd supporting the Soviet Union's Konstantin Volkov booed, hissed, jeered, and whistled his main rival, Poland's Władysław Kozakiewicz. Following his victory, Kozakiewicz responded with an obscene bent elbow gesture which was widely supported in Polish society, which resented Soviet control over Eastern Europe. The Soviet Ambassador to Poland demanded Kozakiewicz be stripped of his medal over his "insult to the Soviet people". The official response of the Polish Government was that Kozakiewicz's arm gesture had been an involuntary muscle spasm. To this day the act is still referred to in Poland as "Kozakiewicz's gesture".
The very first British Empire Games in Hamilton, Canada, in 1930, were the result of a remarkable feat of organisation. The decision to hold the Games was only finally confirmed in February 1930, yet by August of that same year all the preparations had been completed. The Games ran at a cost of $97,973.00 and featured six sports: aquatics (swimming and diving), athletics, boxing, lawn bowls, rowing and wrestling. The Athletes' Village was the Prince of Wales School next to the Civic Stadium, where the competitors slept two dozen to a classroom, while the women were housed in a separate hotel. Eleven countries sent a total of 400 athletes to the Games.