Sports Minister Kiren Rijiju says there is "no doubt in his mind" that India will break into the top-10 of the Summer Olympics medal table by Los Angeles 2028.
The country has set itself the ambitious target as it looks to improve its standing in global sport.
Despite a population of more than 1.3 billion, India has struggled to make an impact at the Summer Olympic Games since its debut in Paris in 1900.
Two silver medals were claimed in the French capital but since then India has bettered that tally only twice.
At Beijing 2008, the country won one gold and two bronze medals, while they won two silver and four bronze at London 2012.
India slipped back at Rio 2016, however, winning just a silver and a bronze to finish 67th on the medal table.
Both medals were won by women, with badminton player PV Sindhu, now the world champion, losing her final for silver and wrestler Sakshi Malik earning a share of third in the 58 kilograms division.
Only nine gold medals have been won in Indian Olympic history, and never more than one at the same Games.
Australia won eight golds, 11 silvers and 10 bronze in finishing 10th at Rio 2016.
"I have no doubt in my mind that by 2028 we will be one of the top 10 nations in the Olympics and by 2024 we will do better," Rijiju said in a live Instagram session.
"But top 10 is something we have to achieve by 2028 Olympics.
"India needs to succeed at the Olympics and that is why we have created a sporting culture in India by launching the Fit India movement, alongside different kinds of support systems and grassroots level motivation.
"India's position in the Olympics has to be worth mentioning.
"The target is to make India one of the top 10 Olympic nations by 2028.
"This is the target I have set and with the Indian Olympic Association (IOA) and all national sports federations, we have worked out certain plans and strategies.
"In the days to come, I want to ensure that not only our participation, but our success rate also must be very high."
Last month, Rijiju said he believed boxing would be a key sport for the country going forward.
Indian sport is currently in a state of turmoil, however, after a court in Delhi ruled that the Sports Ministry must de-recognise 54 national federations.
Recognition is required for the bodies to be eligible for Government funding and assistance in organising training and competition.
IOA President Narinder Batra described the situation as a "complete mess" and said it would affect India's preparations for the re-arranged Tokyo 2020 Olympics next year.
Batra had previously said he was hoping India's medal count in the Japanese capital would reach double figures.
The country is also pondering a bid for the 2032 Games.