Ahmed Boughèra El Ouafi won the Olympic marathon at Amsterdam in 1928, representing France having been spotted after joining the military in his native Algeria, a French territory at the time. He was banned following his victory when the authorities ruled him a professional after touring the United States to take part in races. He was killed in 1961, three days after his 61st birthday, while sitting in a café in Paris by members of the pro-Algeria independence party, the National Liberation Front, after he had refused to support them.