Fact of the Day
At the 1972 Olympics in Munich the judges took the following oath, for the first time: "In the name of all judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Olympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules, which govern them, in the spirit of sportsmanship".
Berlin 1936 were the first Olympics to have live television coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken, broadcast over 70 hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station, the first television station in the world.
The Soviet Union's Boris Onishchenko was disqualified from the modern pentathlon at the 1976 Olympics in Montreal after it was discovered that he had rigged his épée to register a hit when there was not one. Due to his disqualification, it was suggested that he earned the nickname of "Boris DISonish-chenko".
At the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, both Spanish and Catalan were official languages of the Games, but due to the political sensitivity surrounding the use of Catalan, at the Opening Ceremony the nations entered in French alphabetical order.
The Olympic Flame for Montreal 1976 was "electronically" transmitted via satellite from Athens to Ottawa, by means of an electronic pulse derived from the actual burning flame. From Ottawa, it was carried by hand to Montreal. After a rainstorm doused the Olympic flame a few days after the Games had opened, an official relit the flame using his cigarette lighter. Organisers quickly doused it again and relit it using a backup of the original flame.
Shizo Kanakuri disappeared while running the marathon at the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm. He was listed as a missing person in Sweden for 50 years - until a journalist found him living quietly in southern Japan. Overcome with heat during the race, he had stopped at a garden party to drink orange juice, stayed for an hour, then took a train to a hotel and sailed home the next day, too ashamed to tell anyone he was leaving.
Madrid claims to be the largest capital city in Europe never to have hosted the Olympic Games. The Spanish capital is currently one of the candidates to host the 2020 Games, its fourth bid following unsuccessful campaigns for 1972, 2012 and 2016.
Weightlifting was the sport most affected by the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles. A total of 94 of the world's top 100 ranked lifters were absent, as were 29 of the 30 medalists from the recent World Championships, including all 10 champions.
"Hand in Hand", the song composed by Italian Giorgio Moroder with lyrics written by American Tom Whitlock, for the Seoul Olympics in 1988 topped the charts in 17 countries, including Austria, Spain, Japan, Sweden and West Germany. Sung by Korean group Koreana it sold more than 13 million copies around the world.
Show jumper Takeichi Nishi on his horse Uranus won Japan's only Olympic equestrian gold medal at Los Angeles in 1932. Nishi would later die in 1945 as an officer stationed in the defence of the island of Iwo Jima, and as such is a main character in Clint Eastwood's film, Letters from Iwo Jima.
London were awarded the 1944 Olympics which were cancelled as a result of World War Two. They bid for 1948 and were awarded the Games following a postal vote held by the International Olympic Committee in March 1946 which chose them ahead of Baltimore, Minneapolis, Lausanne, Los Angeles and Philadelphia.
Bangladesh is the most populous country in the world never to have won an Olympic medal. The South Asian country, the eighth-most populous nation on earth with a population of 161 million, made its debut at Los Angeles in 1984 but has never even qualified an athlete automatically for the Olympics, sending representatives to the Games thanks to the wildcard process.
The first athlete to win an Olympic medal representing an Asian country was Norman Pritchard, who, running for India, claimed silver medals in the 200 metres and 200m hurdles at Paris in 1900 - although there remains confusion as to his true allegiance. The IAAF records claim that Pritchard ran for Britain but the IOC still regard him as having competed for India.
America's Alvin Kraenzlein won the 60 metres, the 110m hurdles, the 200m hurdles and long jump at the Paris Olympics in 1900, which still stands as a record in athletics for the most individual gold medals won in the Games. After the long jump, he was allegedly punched in the face by rival Meyer Prinstein, who was prevented from competing by officials of Syracuse University as it was on a Sunday.
During the Opening Ceremony of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, astronauts Leonid Popov and Valery Ryumin sent their greetings from Salyut 6 to the competitors and wished them good luck in a live communication between the orbital space station and the Central Lenin Stadium. They appeared on the Stadium's scoreboard and their voices were translated via loud speakers.