Russian Sports Minister Oleg Matytsin has claimed it will be necessary to take steps to minimise the risks posed to his country's athletes by the Rodchenkov Act.
The Rodchenkov Anti-Doping Act, which gives United States officials the power to prosecute individuals for doping schemes at international sports competitions involving American athletes, sponsors and companies, was signed into law by outgoing President Donald Trump last week.
It gives prosecutors the ability to seek fines of up to $1 million (£745,000/€825,000) and prison sentences of up to 10 years for doping conspirators.
Named after former Moscow Laboratory head Grigory Rodchenkov, who both devised and then was a whistleblower on the Russian state sponsored doping system, the act has proved controversial.
Matytsin has warned the country will seek to limit the risks to athletes, although US officials claim individual athletes who use performance-enhancing drugs would not be subject to criminal prosecution under the law.
"There is already the opinion of a single sports community, including World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), that such a step could lead to an imbalance in the system of monitoring and implementing anti-doping measures,” Matytsin told Russia's official state news agency TASS.
"After all, then one country assumes the right to be a kind of judge.
"We have a negative attitude to this, it will be necessary in the near future to think about how to minimise the risks for Russian athletes."
Leonid Slutsky, head of the Russian State Duma's International Affairs Committee, criticised the Act.
Slutsky claimed Russia would not agree to the "extraterritorial law", which he described as "a step towards the destruction of the international sports movement".
The official claimed the Act could be used by the US as an "instrument of manipulation and politicisation in world sports".
According to TASS, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Maria Zakharova claimed the Act was the US attempting to rewrite the rules.
"This is how everything is arranged there," Zakhraova said.
Elena Anikina, President of the Russian Bobsleigh Federation, told the Fetisov programme on the Zvezdat television channel that she feared the new law could jeopardise the coordinated international approach to doping.
"The law caused such amazement, believe me, I read it three times," she said.
"There, under the guise of beautiful phrases of the fight against doping, very strange concepts are written, for example, the main goal of this law is that any international deception directed against Americans would not go unpunished. Switzerland, Russia or France?
"Can they go unpunished?
"There is one contradiction after another on each point.
"There is the IOC (International Olympic Committee), there is the CAS (Court of Arbitration for Sport), there is WADA, and suddenly there is a law that creates complete chaos in this harmonious system.
"They simply take and either take themselves out of the action of existing rules and norms, or rewrite them for themselves, or come up with some kind of virtual reality, which they force everyone else to accept as real reality."
WADA has expressed opposition to the legislation, which it claims represents extra-territoriality from the US, and cited the fact that it does not cover professional athletes in American sports, such as baseball, basketball and ice hockey, as a concern.
United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) chief executive Travis Tygart rejected the claims from WADA, insisting the act was a way for US companies and sponsors to "protect their investment in sport".
Tygart described references from the global watchdog to the professional leagues in the US as "another attack on the US for political purposes", claiming there are a "whole host of reasons" why they are not signatories to the World Anti-Doping Code - which he said "railroads" athletes.
USADA has claimed other countries should implement laws similar to the Rodchenkov Act to prevent repeats of the Russian scandal and protect sport across the world.