A report from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has found no evidence of an institutionalised scheme in Kenya but revealed the doping practises of athletes from the country are "unsophisticated, opportunistic and uncoordinated".
The WADA Project Kenya taskforce delivered the conclusions in a report following a two-day meeting in Nairobi.
The group, overseen by WADA's intelligence and investigations department, outlined a number of concerns with the drugs-testing operation in the nation and revealed 138 Kenyan athletes had tested positive for banned substances since 2004.
The taskforce said athletes in the country are "insufficiently educated on doping and/or willfully blind as to the consequences of doping".
It added that the anti-doping operation in Kenya was "drastically different from other doping structures discovered elsewhere in the world".
WADA's report found that medical practitioners helped administer banned drugs to athletes, either intentionally or unwittingly, while confirming Nandrolone and Erythropoietin were the most common substances used.
WADA launched the taskforce in December 2016 to address widespread doping in the East African nation.
The meeting was attended by WADA intelligence and investigations department head Günter Younger, along with representatives from the Athletics Integrity Unit (AIU) and the Anti-Doping Agency of Kenya (ADAK).
The two-day "Kenya Project Taskforce" meeting is the latest initiative being implemented by WADA’s I&I Department following the launch in December 2016 of a full-scale investigation, known as the "Kenya Project", into widespread doping in the East African nation. pic.twitter.com/7wIgN2TDc3— WADA (@wada_ama) September 27, 2018
"We take the doping practices in Kenya very seriously and have been working hard to identify their extent and nature in Kenyan athletics as well as trying to work out the best possible response," said Younger.
"We believe that a strong, unified, multi-stakeholder approach is key to advancing clean sport in Kenya.
"Doping in the country is different from other doping structures discovered elsewhere in the world and, as such, it requires a different approach.
"What we have determined is that doping in Kenya is not sophisticated or organised and does not appear to be institutionalised."
Younger added that WADA, the AIU and ADAK would continue to "collaborate, educate, investigate and prosecute cases" following the completion of the project.
"The project itself is now concluded but really the work is just beginning," he said.
"If our recommendations are implemented, the Kenya project will have led to better education of athletes and medical practitioners, a greater investigative capacity for ADAK, an active whistleblower network and, ultimately, a stronger anti-doping programme in Kenya."
Kenya's doping problems in recent years have been well-documented amid a spate of positive drugs tests from high-profile athletes in the country.
WADA declared the country non-compliant in May 2016, threatening Kenya's participation at that summer's Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.
New legislation was then introduced which led to Kenya being reinstated before the Games in the Brazilian city.
Eighteen Kenyans are currently suspended for a breaches of anti-doping rules by the AIU, including the likes of three-time Boston Marathon champion Rita Jeptoo, Jemima Sumgong, the Olympic marathon gold medallist at Rio 2016, and world 800 metres bronze medallist Kipyegon Bett.
Anti-doping in Kenya was given a boost last month when WADA announced the opening of a laboratory in Nairobi, the first in East Africa.
"Kenya is a great and justly proud athletics nation, but it now has a serious doping problem," said AIU head Brett Clothier.
"The reasons for this are complex and there are no easy solutions but the AIU is dedicated to working with our partners in Kenya and improving the situation.
"We are not just interested in making cases but gaining a deep understanding so that we can find real and lasting solutions to meet Kenya's unique challenges."