Pavel Kulizhnikov is one skater to have had a world record officially ratified by the ISU

Senior world records in four speed skating and two short track events have been formally ratified by the International Skating Union (ISU) after being set last season.

There include three record marks set by skaters who subsequently failed doping tests for meldonium, only to be cleared once problems emerged in the testing procedures.

Pavel Kulizhnikov, a two-time sprint world champion in long track events, set two world 500 metres records last year.

He clocked 34.00 in Calgary on November before registering a time of 33.98 in Salt Lake City just five days later.

Short-track Olympic champion Semen Elistratov also had a short track 1000m record time of 1.22,607 ratified after he set it in Dresden in February.

Both were subsequently banned after failing tests for meldonium, an endurance boosting substance that was only added to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned list on January 1.

In April, WADA admitted, however, that more research was required to assess how long the drug remained in the human body.

Athletes could therefore avoid punishment if below one microgram of the heart attack drug was detected and their failed test came before March 1.

Both Russians had their suspensions lifted.

Brittany Bowe and Heather Richardson-Bergsma were other athletes to have world records ratified ©Getty Images
Brittany Bowe and Heather Richardson-Bergsma were other athletes to have world records ratified ©Getty Images

Kulizhnikov previously served a two-year doping ban between 2012 and 2014 after failing for stimulant methylhexanamine.

All the world records were approved by the ISU Council at a meeting in Dubrovnik.

Others ratified included a 10,000m time of 12:36.52 set by Canada's Ted-Jan Bloemen in Salt Lake City on November 21.

American stars Heather Richardson-Bergsma and Brittany Bowe each set two record marks.

Richardson-Bergsma skated 1:12.51 for 1000m in Calgary only for Bowe to go faster, with 1:12.18, in Salt Lake City.

Richard-Bergsma returned the favour, however, with her time of 1;50.85 eradicating Bowe's 1:51.59 for the 1500m distance.

In short-track events, China's 3000m relay team of Wei Ma, Ziwei Ren, Hongzhi Xu, Wei Yu had their time of 3:59,809 set in Sofia in January finalised.