Russia was among six countries declared "non-compliant" by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) today following a Foundation Board meeting in Colorado Springs, while six others were warned they face the same action next year if improvements are not made.
Deeming the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) non-compliant was recommended last week by the WADA Indepedent Commission in its 323-page report which published allegations of systemic doping within Russian athletics, as well as the involvement of the FSB secret police in the testing programme.
Today's decision confirmed that recommendation.
It followed WADA removing accreditation from the Russian anti-doping laboratory in Moscow.
Russia's sanction has been accompanied by similar verdicts against Argentina, Bolivia and Ukraine, each declared non-compliant for using non-accredited laboratories for their urine and blood sample analysis.
Andorra and Israel were also suspended with immediate effect after it was deemed that they did not have sufficient anti-doping rules in place.
WADA does not have the right to directly ban or impose further punishments on countries deemed non-compliant.
Other bodies, however, including the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and International Association of Athletics Federations can, as the latter illustrated last week by suspending Russia from all competition.
Brazil, Belgium, France, Greece, Mexico and Spain have also been placed on a compliance "watch list" and will have to prove they have met certain compliance criteria by March 18.
If these conditions are not met, the independent Compliance Review Committee will recommend that they also be declared non-compliant.
That could have major ramifications for Brazil's hosting of the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympics Games and France's staging of the Euro 2016 Football Championships as WADA does have the right to recommend a country ineligible to bid for or host events.
It could also negatively impact on Paris' bid to host the 2024 Olympics and Paralympic Games.
“As we have seen from WADA’s immediate response to the Independent Commission’s Report, action is now well underway to right wrongs that exist in anti-doping," said WADA President Sir Craig Reedie.
"Our priority is now on ensuring all our partners are fully compliant and have watertight anti-doping systems that protect clean athletes and reassure sports fans worldwide.
“Make no mistake, we will not rush this process of compliance, we will do it right – the integrity of sport is under threat.
“Anti-doping in sport is under the spotlight today like never before, and WADA, along with our partners, have begun the work needed on the road to recovery for Russia.
"The world is watching and we have acted.”
Sir Craig, also an IOC vice-president, insisted "necessary meetings" will now be held with Russian authorities.
Although not yet officially sanctioned, Kenya has also been ordered to fully explain its doping controls, with "unsatisfactory" answers expected to result in sanctions.
"WADA is encouraged by media reports that the Kenyan cabinet has now approved rules and approved laws and that it will commit funding to the Kenyan anti-doping programme," a statement added.
The meeting has been hailed as a "defining moment" for the anti-doping industry, evidence of their willingness to take action against countries which are not following the WADA Code.
The Board also endorsed moves for WADA to look at strengthening its ability to conduct international investigations, including to increase the mandate of the Independent Commission to investigate other sports within Russia.
It followed a plea from WADA Athletes' Committee chair Beckie Scott, who made a "specific request" on behalf of the clean athlete community.
Scott, the Canadian who is also a former member of the IOC Athletes' Commission, is a three-time Olympian in cross-country skiing, winning a gold medal at Salt Lake City 2002 and silver at Turin 2006.
Cross-country skiing is widely suspected as another sport where doping is widespread.
Ways to encourage potential anonymous sources to come forward was also discussed, with the Board accepting that a "new level of resource would be needed for WADA to conduct its enhanced investigative and whistleblowing efforts".
“The theme of the day has clearly been investigations," added Sir Craig.
"I will now write to all public authority stakeholders and ask them to make further contributions specifically to fund anti-doping investigations.
"Following any commitments made, I will then immediately approach the IOC to seek matching funding."
November 2015: IAAF banned Russia because of public pressure, claims Sports Minister
November 2015: Russian athletes should be banned from Rio 2016 says iNADO chief
November 2015: Future of Russian Anti-Doping Agency set to be discussed by WADA Executive Committe and Foundation Board
November 2015: Bach "confident" Russia will clean up its act in time for Rio 2016
November 2015: Russia's suspension by IAAF "too severe" claims country's athletics chief